References and Recommended Reading

Bayes, T. (1764). Essay towards solving a problem in the doctrine of chances. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London.

Blok, H., & de Glopper, K. (1992). Large scale writing assessment. In L. Verhoeven (Ed.), J. H. A. L. De Jong (Ed.), The construct of language proficiency: Applications of psychological models to language assessment, pp. 101-111. Amsterdam, Netherlands: John Benjamins Publishing Company.

Breland, H. M., & Lytle, E. G. (1990). Computer-assisted writing skill assessment using WordMAP. ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 317 586, 19pp.

Burstein, J., K. Kukich, S. Wolff, C. Lu, M. Chodorow, L. Braden-Harder, and M.D. Harris (1998). Automated Scoring Using A Hybrid Feature Identification Technique. In the Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association of Computational Linguistics, August, 1998. Montreal, Canada. Available on-line:

Burstein, J. (1999). Quoted in Ott, C. (May 25, 1999). Essay Questions. Salon. Available online:

Charniak, E. (1991). Bayesian Networks without Tears. AI Magazine, Win 1991.

Chung, G. K. W. K., & O’Neil, H. F., Jr. (1997). Methodological approaches to online scoring of essays. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, No. ED 418 101, 39pp.

De Ayala, R. J (1990) A Simulation and Comparison of Flexilevel and Bayesian Computerized Adaptive Testing. Journal of Educational Measurement, v27 n3 p227-39 Fall 1990.

Domingos P. and M. Pazzani (1997). On the optimality of the simple Bayesian classifier under zero-one loss. Machine Learning, 29:103--130.  Available online:

Fan, D. P., & Shaffer, C. L. (1990). Use of open-ended essays and computer content analysis to survey college students’ knowledge of AIDS. College Health, 38, 221-229.

Foltz, P. W., Kintsch, W. & Landauer, T. K. (1998). The measurement of textual coherence with Latent Semantic Analysis. Discourse Processes, , 25, 2&3, 285-307.

Frick, T. W. (1992) Computerized adaptive mastery tests as expert systems. Journal of Educational Computing Research 8(2), 187-213.

Glas, Cees A. W.; Vos, Hans J. (1998) Adaptive Mastery Testing Using the Rasch Model and Bayesian Sequential Decision Theory. Research Report 98-15. ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED428101.

Hankins, Janette A. (1990). The Effects of Variable Entry for a Bayesian Adaptive Test. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 50(4), 785-802.

Jones, B. D. (1999). Computer-rated essays in the English composition classroom. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 20(2), 169-187.

Jones, W. P. (1993). Real-Data Simulation of Computerized Adaptive Bayesian Scaling. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 26(2), 143-151.

Kalt, T. and W.B. Croft (1996). A new probabilistic model of text classification and retrieval. Technical Report IR-78, University of Massachusetts Center for Intelligent Information Retrieval, Aavailable online:

Landauer, T. K., & Dumais, S. T. (1997). A solution to Plato's problem: The Latent Semantic Analysis theory of the acquisition, induction, and representation of knowledge. Psychological Review, 104, 211-240.

Landauer, T. K., Foltz, P. W, & Laham, D. (1998). Introduction to Latent Semantic Analysis. Discourse Processes, 25, 259-284.

Lewis, David D. (1992). An evaluation of phrasal and clustered representations on a text categorization task. In Fifteenth Annual International ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval, pages 37-50, 1992. Available online:

Lewis, D.D. and M. Ringuette (1994) A comparison of Two Learning Algorithms for text categorization, Third annual symposium on document analysis and information retrieval, Las Vegas, NV, April 11-13, pp 81-93.

Lewis, Charles; Sheehan, Kathleen (1990). Using Bayesian Decision Theory to Design a Computerized Mastery Test. Applied Psychological Measurement, 14 (4), 367-386.

Lu, H.K. (1991). An Empirical Comparison of an Expert Systems Approach and an IRT Approach to Computer-Based Adaptive Mastery Testing. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (Chicago, IL, April 3-7, 1991). ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED334210

Madigan, D., Hunt, E., Levidow, B., and Donnell, D. (1995). Bayesian graphical modeling for intelligent tutoring systems. Technical Report. University of Washington.

McCallum, Andrew and Kamal Nigam (1998). A Comparison of Event Models for Naive Bayes Text Classification. AAAI-98 Workshop on "Learning for Text Categorization". Available on-line

McCallum, Andrew, Ronald Rosenfeld & Tom Mitchell (1998).  Improving text classification by shrinkage in a hierarchy of classes. In ICML-98, 1998. Avialable on-line:

McCurry, N., & McCurry, A. (1992). Writing Assessment for the Twenty-First Century. Computer Teacher, 19, 35-37.

Mitchell, Tom (1997). Machine Learning. WCB/McGraw-Hill.

Mislevy, R.J. and D.H. Gitomer (1995). The role of probability based inference in an intelligent tutoring system. Educational Testing Service, Report RR-95-42-ONR.

Murphy, K.P. (1999). An Introduction to Graphical Models and Bayesian Networks. Available online:

Page, E. B. (1966). Grading essays by computer: Progress report. Notes from the 1966 Invitational Conference on Testing Problems, 87-100.

Page, E.B. (1994). Computer Grading of Student Prose, Using Modern Concepts and Software. Journal of Experimental Education, 62(2), 127-42.

Page, E. B., Poggio, J. P., & Keith, T. Z. (1997). Computer analysis of student essays: Finding trait differences in the student profile. AERA/NCME Symposium on Grading Essays by Computer.

Rudner, L.M. (1992). Reducing Errors Due to the Use of Judges. Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 3(3). Available online:

Rudner, L.M. (1999). Assessment using Bayesian Networks. ERIC Digest Series, TM-00-08.

Rudner (in press). Responding to testing needs in the 21st century with an old tool, a very old tool. In G. Walz (ed) Assessment in the New Millennium. Greensboro: University of North Carolina.

Spray, J.A. and Reckase, Mark D. (1996). Comparison of SPRT and Sequential Bayes Procedures for Classifying Examinees into Two Categories Using a Computerized Test. Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics, 21(4), 405-414.

Vetterli, C. F., & Furedy, J. J. (1997). Correlates of intelligence in computer measured aspects of prose vocabulary: Word length, diversity, and rarity. Personality and Individual Differences, 22(6), 933-935.

Welch, R.E. and T. Frick (1993) Computerized Adaptive Testing in Instructional Settings. Educational Training Research and Development, 41(3), 47-62.

Whissel. C. (1994). A computer program for the objective analysis of style and emotional connotations of prose: Hemingway, Galsworthy, and Faulkner compared. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 79, 815-824.

Whittington, D., & Hunt, H. (1999). Approaches to the computerized assessment of free text responses. Proceedings of the Third Annual Computer Assisted Assessment Conference, 207-219, Available online:

Wresch, W. (1993) The Imminence of Grading Essays by Computer - 25 Years Later. Computers and Composition, 10(2), 45-58. Available online:

Revised: July 17, 2001 .